The ascidians of South Padre Island, Texas were surveyed in August 2004. Because the subtidal area is limited to soft sediments, the survey was restricted to marina floats and pilings, harbor buoys, boat hulls and other artificial substrates which offer suitable attachment surfaces for ascidians. Fifteen species were documented, with multiple species representing each of the three orders of ascidians. None of the species found in this survey are native, suggesting they were all introduced through boat traffic. About half the species were found in a reproductive state, however, indicating that they have established local breeding populations.
Lambert, Gretchen; Faulkes, Zen; Lambert, Charles C.; and Scofield, Virginia L., "Ascidians of South Padre Island, Texas, with a Key to Species" (2005). Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations. 36.
Texas Journal of Science