A number of studies find that solitary confinement is associated with mental impairment. Yet, confinement dosage and which individual and exogenous variables lead to mental impairment have received less attention. This study of 2 years of data on disciplinary segregation male inmates employs a repeated measures design to examine how isolation affects mental health and psychological needs. The findings indicate that the duration of disciplinary segregation and incarceration, incidence of homelessness, and other individual-level factors had deleterious effects on mental health and psychological needs. Vocational programming and a high school education were found to be protective factors for psychological needs.
Campagna, Michael F., et al. “Understanding Offender Needs Over Forms of Isolation Using a Repeated Measures Design.” The Prison Journal, vol. 99, no. 6, Dec. 2019, pp. 639–661, doi:10.1177/0032885519877356.