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Methionine oxidation to the sulfoxide form (MSox) is a poorly understood post-translational modification of proteins associated with nonspecific chemical oxidation from reactive oxygen species (ROS) whose chemistries are linked to various disease pathologies including neurodegeneration. Emerging evidence shows MSox site occupancy is in some cases under enzymatic regulatory control mediating cellular signaling including phosphorylation and/or calcium signaling, raising questions as to the speciation and functional nature of MSox across the proteome. The 5XFAD lineage of the C57BL/6 mouse has well-defined Alzheimer’s and aging states. Using this model, we analyzed age, sex and disease dependent MSox speciation in mouse hippocampus. In addition, we explore chemical stability and statistical variance of oxidized peptide signals to understand needed power for MSox based proteome studies. Our results identify mitochondrial and glycolytic pathway targets with increases in MSox with age as well as neuroinflammatory targets accumulating MSox with AD in proteome studies of mouse hippocampus. Further, the paper establishes a foundation for reproducible and rigorous experimental MSox-omics appropriate for biological discovery novel target identification, and biomarker analysis in ROS and other oxidation linked diseases.



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