This paper investigates a restricted version of robot motion planning, in which particles on a board uniformly respond to global signals that cause them to move one unit distance in a particular direction on a 2D grid board with geometric obstacles. We show that the problem of deciding if a particular particle can be relocated to a specified location on the board is PSPACE-complete when only allowing 1x1 particles. This shows a separation between this problem, called the relocation problem, and the occupancy problem in which we ask whether a particular location can be occupied by any particle on the board, which is known to be in P with only 1x1 particles. We then consider both the occupancy and relocation problems for the case of extremely simple rectangular geometry, but slightly more complicated pieces consisting of 1x2 and 2x1 domino particles, and show that in both cases the problems are PSPACE-complete.
Caballero, David, Cantu, Angel A., Gomez, Timothy, Luchsinger, Austin, Schweller, Robert, and Wylie, Tim. Relocating Units in Robot Swarms with Uniform Control Signals is PSPACE-Complete. Retrieved from https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10262145. Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry .