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Pseudouridine is one of the most abundant RNA modifications, occurring when uridines are catalyzed by Pseudouridine synthase proteins. It plays an important role in many biological processes and also has an importance in drug development. Recently, the single-molecule sequencing techniques such as the direct RNA sequencing platform offered by Oxford Nanopore technologies enable direct detection of RNA modifications on the molecule that is being sequenced, but to our knowledge this technology has not been used to identify RNA Pseudouridine sites. To this end, in this paper, we address this limitation by introducing a tool called Penguin that integrates several developed machine learning (ML) models (i.e., predictors) to identify RNA Pseudouridine sites in Nanopore direct RNA sequencing reads. Penguin extracts a set of features from the raw signal measured by the Oxford Nanopore and the corresponding basecalled k-mer. Those features are used to train the predictors included in Penguin, which in turn, is able to predict whether the signal is modified by the presence of Pseudouridine sites. We have included various predictors in Penguin including Support vector machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and Neural network (NN). The results on the two benchmark data sets show that Penguin is able to identify Pseudouridine sites with a high accuracy of 93.38% and 92.61% using SVM in random split testing and independent validation testing respectively. Thus, Penguin outperforms the existing Pseudouridine predictors in the literature that achieved an accuracy of 76.0 at most with an independent validation testing. A GitHub of the tool is accessible at


Student publication. Pre-print. Original published version available at

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