Elemental characterization of fine particulate matter was undertaken at schools and residences in three low income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. The three zones were located in the northern (Cotocollao), south central (El Camal), and south east (Los Chillos) neighborhoods and were classified as zones 1–3, respectively. Forty elements were quantified via ICP-MS analysis. Amongst the geogenic elements, the concentration of Si was the most abundant followed by S, Al, and Ca. Elements with predominantly anthropogenic sources such as Zn, V, and Ni were higher in zone 3 school followed by zone 2 and zone 1 schools. Enrichment factors were calculated to study the role of crustal sources in the elemental concentrations. Geogenic elements, except K, all had valuesNi, V, Zn, Pb, As, Cr had >10. Principal Component Analysis suggested that Ni and V concentrations were strongly attributable to pet coke and heavy oil combustion. Strong associations between As and Pb could be attributed to traffic and other industrial emissions. Resuspended dust, soil erosion, vehicular emissions (tailpipe, brake and tire wear, and engine abrasion), pet coke, heavy oil combustion, and heavy industrial operations were major contributors to air pollution.
Raysoni AU, Armijos RX, Weigel MM, Echanique P, Racines M, Pingitore NE, Li W-W. Evaluation of Sources and Patterns of Elemental Composition of PM2.5 at Three Low-Income Neighborhood Schools and Residences in Quito, Ecuador. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(7):674. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070674
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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health