In this study, the relationships between ethanol yield/concentration and solid loading (6–21%) were investigated to enhance ethanol titer and avoid a random choice of solid loading for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Alkali-pretreated hemp biomass was used for SSF in four scenarios including Case I: 30 filter paper unit (FPU)-cellulase and 140 fungal xylanase unit (FXU)-hemicellulase/g-solid; Case II: 40 FPU-cellulase and 140 FXU-hemicellulase/g-solid; Case III: 30 FPU-cellulase and 140 FXU-hemicellulase/g-solid with 1% Tween80; and Case IV: 30 FPU-cellulase and 140 FXU-hemicellulase/g-solid with particle size reduction (<0.2 mm). Results showed that bioethanol yield and concentration had a negative linear (R2 = 0.76–0.93) and quadratic (R2 = 0.96–0.99) correlation with solid loading (6–21%), respectively. As compared to Case I and previous studies, an enhancement in ethanol yield and concentration through increasing cellulase dose (Case II) and adding Tween 80 (Case III) was overestimated, whereas particle size reduction (Case IV) extended the “solid effect”, evidenced by the highest ethanol concentration (77 g/L) achieved from SSF at the focus point of a quadratic model. An interpretation of the relationship between ethanol yield/concentration and solid loading not only avoids a blind selection of solid loading for SSF but also reduces extra enzymes and water consumption.
Zhao, Jikai, et al. "High Ethanol concentration (77 g/L) of industrial hemp biomass achieved through optimizing the relationship between ethanol yield/concentration and solid loading." ACS omega 5.34 (2020): 21913-21921. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03135