The world is struggling to solve a devastating biodiversity loss that not only affects the extinction of treasured species and irreplaceable genetic variation, but also jeopardizes the food production, health, and safety of people. All initiatives aimed to conserve biodiversity rely heavily on the monitoring of both species and populations to get accurate spatial patterns and overall population assessments. Conventional monitoring techniques, such as visual surveys and counting individuals, are problematic due to challenges in identifying cryptic species or immature life stages. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new technology that has the potential to be a faster, non-invasive, and cost-effective tool for monitoring biodiversity, conservation, and management practices. eDNA has been extracted from materials that are both ancient and present, and its applications range from the identification of individual species to the study of entire ecosystems. In the past few years, there has been a substantial increase in the usage of eDNA in research pertaining to ecological preservation and conservation. However, several technological problems still need to be solved. To reduce the number of false positives and/or false negatives produced by current eDNA technologies, it is necessary to improve and optimize calibration and validation at every stage of the procedure. There is a significant need for greater information about the physical and ecological constraints on eDNA use, as well as its synthesis, current state, expected lifespan, and potential modes of movement. Due to the widespread use of eDNA research, it is also essential to assess the extent and breadth of these studies. In this article, we critically reviewed the primary applications of eDNA in subterranean and aquatic invasive species. Through this review, readers can better understand the challenges and limitations of eDNA metabarcoding.
Rishan, Sakib Tahmid, Richard J. Kline, and Md Saydur Rahman. "Applications of environmental DNA (eDNA) to detect subterranean and aquatic invasive species: A critical review on the challenges and limitations of eDNA metabarcoding." Environmental Advances (2023): 100370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envadv.2023.100370
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