School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Interactive effects of high temperature and pesticide exposure on oxidative status, apoptosis, and renin expression in kidney of goldfish: Molecular and cellular mechanisms of widespread kidney damage and renin attenuation

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One of many noteworthy consequences of increasing societal reliance on pesticides is their predominance in aquatic environments. These pernicious chemicals interact with high temperatures from global climate change, heat waves, and natural variations to create unstable environments that negatively impact organisms' health. To understand these conditions, we examined the dose-dependent effects of environmentally relevant pesticide mixtures (metolachlor, linuron, isoproturon, tebuconazole, aclonifen, atrazine, pendimethalin, and azinphos-methyl) combined with elevated temperatures (22 control vs. 32°C for 4-week exposure) on renin, dinitrophenyl protein (DNP, an indicator of reactive oxygen species, ROS), 3-nitrotyrosine protein (NTP, an indicator of reactive nitrogen species, RNS), superoxidase dismutase (SOD, an antioxidant), and catalase (CAT, an antioxidant) expressions in the kidneys of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Histopathological analysis showed widespread damage to kidney tissues in high temperature and pesticide co-exposure groups, including rupture of the epithelial layer, hemorrhaging, and degeneration of tubular epithelium. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated significant declines in renin receptor-like mRNA and protein expressions in kidney tissues under combined exposure to high temperature and pesticides compared with controls; conversely, expression of DNP, NTP, SOD, and CAT increased in kidney tissues under the same conditions. Apoptotic cells were also increased in co-exposure groups as assessed by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick labeling (TUNEL) assay. The enhanced apoptosis in kidneys of heat and pesticides co-exposed fish was associated with increased caspase-3 (a protease enzyme) mRNA levels. Our results demonstrated that high temperature and pesticides induced oxidative/nitrative stress (i.e., ROS/RNS), damaged tissues, increased cellular apoptosis, and suppressed renin expression in kidneys of goldfish.


© 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Publication Title

Journal of Applied Toxicology