School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Speciation of Phosphorus Zinc and Copper in Soil and Water-Dispersible Colloid Affected by a Long-Term Application of Swine Manure Compost

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The objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and chemical species of Zn, Cu, and P in the bulk soil and water-dispersible colloid (WDC) fraction collected from a field where swine manure (SM) compost has been continually applied for 23 years. A filtration and ultracentrifugation process was used to separate and collect WDC (20–1000 nm) from the soil. The continual application of SM increased soil P from 1.6 to 4.5 g kg–1, Zn from 109 to 224 mg kg–1, and Cu from 87 to 95 mg kg–1 for 23 years. The continual SM compost application also enhanced the formation of soil WDC in which Zn (215 mg kg–1) and Cu (62 mg kg–1) were highly accumulated and P (25 g kg–1) was greater than in the bulk soil. According to the result of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the continual application of SM compost increased P associated with Fe hydroxides in the soil and WDC fraction. Iron K-edge XAS revealed the dominance of goethite and ferrihydrite in the WDC fraction, suggesting that P was bound to these (oxy)hydroxides. Copper K-edge XAS determined the dominance of Cu(II) associated with humus in the soil and WDC fraction. For Zn species in the SM-compost-applied soil, hopeite and Zn associated with humus were accumulated in the bulk soil, whereas Zn associated with humus was the primary species in the WDC fraction. Our study suggests that the formation of organic complexes in the WDC fraction could enhance the mobility of Zn and Cu as the repeated application of SM compost continues.


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Environmental Science and Technology