Economics and Finance Faculty Publications and Presentations

Document Type


Publication Date



This paper provides one of the first comprehensive and most updated studies on the effects of firms’ organizational resources, country institutions, and national culture on the survival and growth of private firms around the world during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyzing World Bank Enterprise Follow-up Surveys on COVID-19 that cover 18,770 firms in 36 countries, the paper documents four sets of findings. (1) During the pandemic, firms with favorable organizational resources (state ownership and affiliation with parent companies) are more likely to survive and grow, whereas firms with foreign ownership or more financial obstacles are less likely to survive or grow. Firms in countries with a higher per capita income, a lower COVID-19 spread, and a less stringent COVID-19 control policy are more likely to survive and grow. (2) Favorable ownership and parent-company affiliations help cushion the pandemic shock during the pandemic. (3) The relationship between firm characteristics and firm survival/growth is significantly affected by the stringency of a country’s COVID-19 policy. (4) Firm survival and growth are positively related to a country’s cultural tendency in terms of long-term orientation and are not significantly related to uncertainty avoidance and individualism. The overall quality of country governance is negatively linked to the odds for firm survival as well as revenue and employment growth.


© World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Included in

Finance Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.