Cross-country empirical studies of corruption using ordinary least squares commonly find that nations in which women play a greater role in economic and public life suffer less corruption. This has been a controversial finding since measures of women’s participation in the economy and politics are likely endogenous. This study uses an aspect of national ancestral geography as a novel instrumental variable in the estimation of the true causal effects of gender upon corruption. It thereby finds that ordinary least squares estimates of the effects of gender upon corruption are biased. This conclusion is upheld in time-series fixed-effects estimation.
Hazarika, Gautam. “The Plough, Gender Roles, and Corruption.” Economics of Governance 19, no. 2 (February 26, 2018): 141–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10101-018-0202-7.
Economics of Governance