The Relationship Among Learners’ At-risk Indicators and Ninth Grade Algebra I Achievement
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The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between at-risk indicators including socioeconomic status, English language learners (ELL), and gender to student performance in the Algebra I End of Course assessment. The research questions presented in the non-experimental quantitative research design were: (1) What is the impact of socioeconomic status on the Algebra I EOC exam? (2) What is the success rate of ninth grade students identified as English Language Learners (ELL) compared to non-identified ninth grade students in Algebra I? and (3) What is the difference in ninth grade Algebra I achievement between males and females? (4) What is the relationship between socioeconomic status, English Language Learner classification, and gender interactions? A three-way ANOVA was conducted in this study to show the interactions between the three independent variables, socioeconomic status, gender, and English Language Learner classification, in relation to the dependent variable, student achievement as measured by the Texas Algebra I End of Course 2019 assessment. The data was collected using the district data management program from a South Texas school district’s predominantly Hispanic rural high school located along the US-Mexico border. After analyzing the three-way ANOVA which was conducted using the computer program, SPPS V27, it was evident by the Boxplots and Estimated Marginal Means graphs that females who were economically disadvantaged and classified as ELLs had lower student achievement than females who were not classified as ELLs and were not economically disadvantaged. Moreover, males who were economically disadvantaged and were not ELLs had slightly higher student achievement than those who were ELLs and were not economically disadvantaged. Key Words: algebra, socioeconomic status, at-risk, gender, English Language Learners, student achievement.