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Angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE1) and apolipoproteins (APOs) may play important roles in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study aimed to examine the associations of AD, CVD, and endocrine-metabolic diseases (EMDs) with the levels of ACE1 and 9 APO proteins (ApoAI, ApoAII, ApoAIV, ApoB, ApoCI, ApoCIII, ApoD, ApoE, and ApoH). Non-Hispanic white individuals including 109 patients with AD, 356 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 373 CVD, 198 EMD and controls were selected from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) was used to examine the associations. ApoE ε4 allele was associated with AD, as well as ApoAIV, ApoB and ApoE proteins, but not associated with CVD and EMD. Both AD and CVD were associated with levels of ACE1, ApoB, and ApoH proteins. AD, MCI and EMD were associated with levels of ACE1, ApoAII, and ApoE proteins. This is the first study to report associations of ACE1 and several APO proteins with AD, MCI, CVD and EMD, respectively, including upregulated and downregulated protein levels. In conclusion, as specific or shared biomarkers, the levels of ACE1 and APO proteins are implicated for AD, CVD, EMD and ApoE ε4 allele. Further studies are required for validation to establish reliable biomarkers for these health conditions


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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10.3390/ cells11010029



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