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Sequencing of nrDNA, plus four cp DNA regions: petN-psbM, trnS-trnG, trnD-trnT and trnL-trnF of newly acquired samples of J. excelsa from Bulgaria, Cyprus and Turkey showed little variation in J. excelsa (sensu stricto), except for the unusual situation in Lebanon, where J. excelsa and J. polycarpos (and likely J. p. var. turcomanica) grow near each other and may be hybridizing. The genetic composition of the eastern-most populations of J. excelsa in Turkey is unknown and deserves further study.

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