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DNA analysis of Juniperus excelsa from throughout its range revealed that J. polycarpos, instead of J. excelsa occupies central and eastern Turkey. Based on nrDNA (ITS) data, it appears that relictual hybridization has occurred in southeastern Turkey between J. polycarpos and J. turcomanica. Surprisingly, evidence of incomplete lineage sorting or relictual hybridization between J. polycarpos and J. seravschanica was found in central Turkey and northwest Iran.

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