Decreased consumption of n-3 fatty acids (FA) and diets rich in animal proteins, saturated fats and n-6 vegetable oils are associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), certain malignancies and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythromatous (SLE), and renal disease. Recent studies show that reduced calorie intake and supplementation of diet with n-3 FA delays the onset of autoimmune renal disease, primarily, due to increased antioxidant enzyme activities, decreased NF-kappaB activation and decreased IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in the kidney tissue. Studies in rodents show that addition of n-3 FA and soy protein to diet affords protection against bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice due to NF-kappaB expression and decreased activation of osteoclasts. Together, the availale evidence show that increased daily intake of dietary n-3 FA decreases the severity of autoimmune disorders, lessens the chance of developing CVD, and protects against bone loss during post-menopause.
Fernandes, G., Bhattacharya, A., Rahman, M., Zaman, K., & Banu, J. (2008). Effects of n-3 fatty acids on autoimmunity and osteoporosis. Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library, 13, 4015–4020. https://doi.org/10.2741/2989