The microcirculation in adipose tissue is markedly impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Resistance training (RT) often increases muscle mass and promotes a favorable metabolic profile in people with T2D, even in the absence of fat loss. Whether the metabolic benefits of RT in T2D are linked to improvements in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow is unknown. Eighteen sedentary people with T2D (7 women/11 men, 52 ± 7 yr) completed 6 wk of RT. Before and after RT, overnight-fasted participants had blood sampled for clinical chemistries (glucose, insulin, lipids, HbA1c, and proinflammatory markers) and underwent an oral glucose challenge (OGC; 50 g glucose × 2 h) and a DEXA scan to assess body composition. Adipose tissue microvascular blood volume and flow were assessed at rest and 1 h post-OGC using contrast-enhanced ultrasound. RT significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (P = 0.006), HbA1c (P = 0.007), 2-h glucose area under the time curve post-OGC (P = 0.014), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.005). This was accompanied by a small reduction in total body fat (P = 0.002), trunk fat (P = 0.023), and fasting triglyceride levels (P = 0.029). Lean mass (P = 0.003), circulating TNF-α (P = 0.006), and soluble VCAM-1 (P < 0.001) increased post-RT. There were no significant changes in adipose tissue microvascular blood volume or flow following RT; however those who did have a higher baseline microvascular blood flow post-RT also had lower fasting triglyceride levels (r = −0.476, P = 0.045). The anthropometric, glycemic, and insulin-sensitizing benefits of 6 wk of RT in people with T2D are not associated with an improvement in adipose tissue microvascular responses; however, there may be an adipose tissue microvascular-linked benefit to fasting triglyceride levels.
Hu, Donghua, Ryan D. Russell, Devika Remash, Timothy Greenaway, Stephen Rattigan, Kathryn A. Squibb, Graeme Jones, et al. 2018. “Are the Metabolic Benefits of Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetes Linked to Improvements in Adipose Tissue Microvascular Blood Flow?” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 315 (6): E1242–50. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00234.2018.