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Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain cancer and is associated with poor prognosis, with an average survival after diagnosis of less than 18 months. Hundreds of clinical trials have been conducted, with more underway to make progress in treating glioblastoma. This review details conventional and emergent targeted therapies for glioblastoma.


Glioblastoma is most commonly a primary brain tumor and the utmost malignant one, with a survival rate of approximately 12–18 months. Glioblastoma is highly heterogeneous, demonstrating that different types of cells from the same tumor can manifest distinct gene expression patterns and biological behaviors. Conventional therapies such as temozolomide, radiation, and surgery have limitations. As of now, there is no cure for glioblastoma. Alternative treatment methods to eradicate glioblastoma are discussed in this review, including targeted therapies to PI3K, NFKβ, JAK-STAT, CK2, WNT, NOTCH, Hedgehog, and TGFβ pathways. The highly novel application of oncolytic viruses and nanomaterials in combating glioblastoma are also discussed. Despite scores of clinical trials for glioblastoma, the prognosis remains poor. Progress in breaching the blood–brain barrier with nanomaterials and novel avenues for targeted and combination treatments hold promise for the future development of efficacious glioblastoma therapies.


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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