Theses and Dissertations - UTB/UTPA

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Dr. Matthew Terry

Second Advisor

Dr. Kenneth Summy

Third Advisor

Dr. Michael Persans


Collembola, or “springtails,” are small, edaphic arthropods classified as Entognatha; a group traditionally included as part of Hexapoda and sister-group to the true insects. However, some genetic studies suggest that they may instead have derived from a separate crustacean lineage rather than from a proto-Insecta lineage. The unique abdominal structures that develop on the collembolan ventral abdomen appear to be appendicular in origin – atypical to the canonical, appendage-less insect abdomen ground plan. I developed culture and embryo fixation protocols for; and sequenced and analyzed a multi-stage embryo transcriptome for Tomocerus minor (Collembola: Entomobryomorpha). This analysis annotated 14,417 distinct genes, identified all eight Hox genes, and several other genes that play a role in appendage and abdominal development during embryogenesis. I designed primers for eight target genes (Antp, Ubx, abdA, AbdB, Cad, en, inv, Dll) and successfully amplified portions of these genes, producing PCR products at predicted lengths.


Copyright 2014 Alejandro Alaniz. All Rights Reserved.

Granting Institution

University of Texas-Pan American

Included in

Biology Commons