This paper reports the experimental approaches to the fabrication of two-layer integrated phase masks and the fabrication of photonic crystal templates using the phase mask based on holographic lithography technique. The photonic crystal template is formed by exposing photoresist mixtures to five-beam interference patterns generated through the phase mask. The fabricated phase mask consists of two layers of orthogonally oriented gratings produced in a liquid crystal and photoresist mixture. A polymerization-induced phase separation preserves the grating structure during the exposure. The vertical spatial separation between two layers of gratings produces a phase difference among diffracted laser beams, which enables the holographic fabrication of diamondlike photonic crystal structures. The fabricated photonic crystal structure is consistent with simulations based on the five-beam interference. The two-layer phase mask opens up an opportunity of direct printing photonic structures.
Lin, Y., Harb, A., Rodriguez, D., Lozano, K., Xu, D., & Chen, K. P. (2008). Holographic fabrication of photonic crystals using multidimensional phase masks. Journal of Applied Physics, 104(11), 113111. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3037234
Journal of Applied Physics