Paper-based biosensors are a potential paradigm of sensitivity achieved via microporous spreading/microfluidics, simplicity, and affordability. In this paper, we develop decorated paper with graphene and conductive polymer (herein referred to as graphene conductive polymer paper-based sensor or GCPPS) for sensitive detection of biomolecules. Planetary mixing resulted in uniformly dispersed graphene and conductive polymer ink, which was applied to laser-cut Whatman filter paper substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy showed strong attachment of conductive polymer-functionalized graphene to cellulose fibers. The GCPPS detected dopamine and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the ranges of 12.5–400 µM, 0.005–50 ng/mL, and 2 pg/mL–2 µg/mL, respectively, using a minute sample volume of 2 µL. The electrodes showed lower detection limits (LODs) of 3.4 µM, 5.97 pg/mL, and 9.55 pg/mL for dopamine, TNF-α, and IL-6 respectively, which are promising for rapid and easy analysis for biomarkers detection. Additionally, these paper-based biosensors were highly selective (no serpin A1 detection with IL-6 antibody) and were able to detect IL-6 antigen in human serum with high sensitivity and hence, the portable, adaptable, point-of-care, quick, minute sample requirement offered by our fabricated biosensor is advantageous to healthcare applications.
Rahman, Md Ashiqur, Ramendra Kishor Pal, Nazmul Islam, Robert Freeman, Francois Berthiaume, Aaron Mazzeo, and Ali Ashraf. 2023. "A Facile Graphene Conductive Polymer Paper Based Biosensor for Dopamine, TNF-α, and IL-6 Detection" Sensors 23, no. 19: 8115. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23198115
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