Document Type


Publication Date



Paper-based biosensors are a potential paradigm of sensitivity achieved via microporous spreading/microfluidics, simplicity, and affordability. In this paper, we develop decorated paper with graphene and conductive polymer (herein referred to as graphene conductive polymer paper-based sensor or GCPPS) for sensitive detection of biomolecules. Planetary mixing resulted in uniformly dispersed graphene and conductive polymer ink, which was applied to laser-cut Whatman filter paper substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy showed strong attachment of conductive polymer-functionalized graphene to cellulose fibers. The GCPPS detected dopamine and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the ranges of 12.5–400 µM, 0.005–50 ng/mL, and 2 pg/mL–2 µg/mL, respectively, using a minute sample volume of 2 µL. The electrodes showed lower detection limits (LODs) of 3.4 µM, 5.97 pg/mL, and 9.55 pg/mL for dopamine, TNF-α, and IL-6 respectively, which are promising for rapid and easy analysis for biomarkers detection. Additionally, these paper-based biosensors were highly selective (no serpin A1 detection with IL-6 antibody) and were able to detect IL-6 antigen in human serum with high sensitivity and hence, the portable, adaptable, point-of-care, quick, minute sample requirement offered by our fabricated biosensor is advantageous to healthcare applications.


© 2023 by the authors.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publication Title





To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.