Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is one of the major causes of failure in railroad bearings used in freight service. Subsurface inclusions resulting from impurities in the steel used to fabricate the bearings initiate subsurface fatigue cracks, which propagate upwards and cause spalling of the rolling surfaces. These spalls start small and propagate as continued operation induces additional crack formation and spalling. Studies have shown that the bearing temperature is not a good indicator of spall initiation. In many instances, the temperature of the bearing increases markedly only when the spall has spread across major portions of the raceway. In contrast, vibration signatures can be used to accurately detect spall initiation within a bearing and can track spall deterioration. No monitoring technique can indicate the growth rate of a spall or determine residual useful life. Hence, the main objective of this study is to develop reliable prognostic models for spall growth within railroad bearings that are based on actual service life testing rather than theoretical simulations. The data used to devise the models presented here were acquired from laboratory and field testing that started in 2010. Growth models are provided for spalls initiating on the bearing inner (cone) and outer (cup) rings. Coupling these prognostic models with a previously developed vibration-based bearing condition monitoring algorithm will provide the rail industry with an efficient tool that can be used to plan proactive maintenance schedules that will mitigate unnecessary and costly train stoppages and delays and will prevent catastrophic derailments.
Constantine Tarawneh, Jennifer D. Lima, Nancy De Los Santos & Robert E. Jones (2019) Prognostics Models for Railroad Tapered Roller Bearings with Spall Defects on Inner or Outer Rings, Tribology Transactions, 62:5, 897-906, DOI: 10.1080/10402004.2019.1634228