Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



This paper deals with internal forces of human knee during moderate squat exercise. The moderate squat exercise consists of a descending phase from standing to the lowest position (largest flexion angle) in which no significant contact between thigh and calf occurs, and an ascending phase back to standing position. This research predicts the internal forces such as muscle forces, contact forces, and ligamentous forces. The ligamentous structures in this research consist of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL), Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL), Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL), and Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL). The ligaments are modeled as nonlinear elastic strips (they do not carry compression forces). An optimization technique was used to determine the muscle and contact forces present in the knee during the squat exercise.


Copyright © 2016 by ASME. Original published version available at

Publication Title

Proceedings of the ASME 2016 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition





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