Matrix acidizing in carbonate reservoirs is a process that has been long used to increase productivity in oil and gas producing formations. The main goal is to create wormholes that bypass the damage in the formation. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is the main acid used for this; however, it has several disadvantages that affect the success of these treatments. Its high reaction rate, inability to divert, and corrosive nature are a few of the reasons why research in this area has focused on finding alternative fluids. This paper discusses studies on successful alternatives to HCl. It has been observed that emulsified acids, which work with the addition of a surfactant to HCl, have shown positive results as their high viscosity allows them to retard the reaction rate between the acid and the rock and form effective and dominant wormholes. This is needed, especially in hightemperature environments. As HCl also lacks the ability to divert to low-permeability zones in highly heterogeneous formations, emulsified acids are also helpful for this task. While viscoelastic surfactants have been found to be less susceptible to form damage since they do not have any polymer content, their diversion performance has not been as effective as emulsified acids. Corrosion is one of the greatest and most expensive issues faced in matrix acidizing treatments. The use of corrosion inhibitors has been proposed as the best way to deal with this problem. Inorganic corrosion inhibitors are no longer an option as they are extremely toxic and pose a great danger to the environment. Organic corrosion inhibitors have been proposed as an alternative since the 1970s. However, organic compounds still pose a hazard in their use. Natural extracts as alternatives have been proposed for their inhibition ability. The use of henna extract and aqueous garlic peel extract as corrosion inhibitors has shown positive results with lower corrosion rates compared to some conventional inhibitors.
Chacon, O.G.; Pournik, M. Matrix Acidizing in Carbonate Formations. Processes 2022, 10, 174. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010174
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