School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Ethnic differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and response to treatment in CKD

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Aim: Nutritional vitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). No studies have specifically examined the differences between ethnic groups in response to ergocalciferol ("D2") therapy.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of D2 therapy as recommended by the KDOQI guidelines in 184 Hispanic and Caucasian nondialysis CKD patients.

Results: Low 25(OH)D levels (<75 nmol/L) were found in 89.4 % of Hispanics versus 61.4 % of Caucasians, despite similar degrees of CKD. Treatment per KDOQI guidelines resulted in 85.5 % of treated Hispanics and 66.7 % of treated Caucasians remaining vitamin D-deficient. Although both Hispanics and Caucasians had significant (P < 0.0001) changes in 25(OH)D levels, absolute changes were modest (12.5 ± 2.0 nmol/mL in Hispanics, 20.0 ± 3.5 nmol/L in Caucasians). The increase seen in Caucasians was significantly greater than in Hispanics (P < 0.0001). In multiple logistic regression modeling, Hispanic ethnicity remained independently associated with poorer response to therapy (P = 0.0055), even after adjustment for other factors.

Conclusions: While both Hispanics and Caucasians demonstrated suboptimal response to the KDOQI-guided vitamin D repletion strategy, Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with poorer response. Our findings may have implications for other darker-skinned populations, even in solar-rich environments.


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Int Urol Nephrol