The effect of asymmetric large-scale dissipation on energy and potential enstrophy injection in two-layer quasi-geostrophic turbulence
In the Nastrom–Gage spectrum of atmospheric turbulence, we observe a energy spectrum that transitions into a spectrum, with increasing wavenumber . The transition occurs near a transition wavenumber , located near the Rossby deformation wavenumber . The Tung–Orlando theory interprets this spectrum as a double downscale cascade of potential enstrophy and energy, from large scales to small scales, in which the downscale potential enstrophy cascade coexists with the downscale energy cascade over the same length scale range. We show that, in a temperature-forced two-layer quasi-geostrophic model, the rates with which potential enstrophy and energy are injected place the transition wavenumber near . We also show that, if the potential energy dominates the kinetic energy in the forcing range, then the Ekman term suppresses the upscale cascading potential enstrophy more than it suppresses the upscale cascading energy, a behaviour contrary to what occurs in two-dimensional turbulence. As a result, the ratio of injected potential enstrophy over injected energy, in the downscale direction, decreases, thereby tending to decrease the transition wavenumber further. Using a random Gaussian forcing model, we reach the same conclusion, under the modelling assumption that the asymmetric Ekman term predominantly suppresses the bottom layer forcing, thereby disregarding a possible entanglement between the Ekman term and the nonlinear interlayer interaction. Based on these results, we argue that the Tung–Orlando theory can account for the approximate coincidence between and . We also identify certain open questions that require further investigation via numerical simulations.
Gkioulekas, Eleftherios. “The Effect of Asymmetric Large-Scale Dissipation on Energy and Potential Enstrophy Injection in Two-Layer Quasi-Geostrophic Turbulence.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 694, 2012, pp. 493–523., https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2012.3
Journal of Fluid Mechanics