Two-dimensional turbulence appears to be a more formidable problem than three-dimensional turbulence despite the numerical advantage of working with one less dimension. In the present paper we review recent numerical investigations of the phenomenology of two-dimensional turbulence as well as recent theoretical breakthroughs by various leading researchers. We also review efforts to reconcile the observed energy spectrum of the atmosphere (the spectrum) with the predictions of two-dimensional turbulence and quasigeostrophic turbulence.
Gkioulekas, E., Tung, KK. Recent Developments in Understanding Two-dimensional Turbulence and the Nastrom–Gage Spectrum. J Low Temp Phys 145, 25–57 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10909-006-9239-z
Journal of Low Temperature Physics