The goal of the study was to determine the association between diabetes and inflammation in clinically diagnosed diabetes patients. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation in diabetes is associated with the level of glucose control. Using a cross-sectional design we compared pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a community recruited cohort of 367 Mexican Americans with type 2-diabetes having a wide range blood glucose levels. Cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8) and adipokines (adiponectin, resistin and leptin) were measured using multiplex ELISA. Our data indicated that diabetes as whole was strongly associated with elevated levels of IL-6, leptin, CRP and TNF-α, whereas worsening of glucose control was positively and linearly associated with high levels of IL-6, leptin. The associations remained statistically significant even after controlling for BMI and age (p = 0.01). The association between TNF-α, however, was attenuated when comparisons were performed based on glucose control. Strong interaction effects between age and BMI and diabetes were observed for IL-8, resistin, and CRP. The cytokine/adipokine profiles of Mexican Americans with diabetes suggest an association between low-grade inflammation and quality of glucose control. Unique to in our population is that the chronic inflammation is accompanied by lower levels of leptin.
Mirza, S., Hossain, M., Mathews, C., Martinez, P., Pino, P., Gay, J. L., Rentfro, A., McCormick, J. B., & Fisher-Hoch, S. P. (2012). Type 2-diabetes is associated with elevated levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and adiponectin and low levels of leptin in a population of Mexican Americans: a cross-sectional study. Cytokine, 57(1), 136–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2011.09.029