The effects of neurofeedback training for children with cerebral palsy and co-occurring attention deficits: A pilot study

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Limited research exists regarding the effectiveness of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback training for children with cerebral palsy (CP) and co-occurring attention deficits (ADs), despite the increasing prevalence of these dual conditions. This study aimed to fill this gap by examining the impact of neurofeedback training on the attention levels of children with CP and AD.


Nineteen children with both CP and co-occurring ADs were randomly assigned to either a neurofeedback or control group. The neurofeedback group received 20 sessions of training, lasting approximately 1 h per day, twice a week. Theta/beta ratios of the quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) recordings were measured pre-training and post-training in the resting state. The Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills—3rd Version (TVPS-3) and the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were measured at pre- and post-training.


The neurofeedback group showed both decreased theta/beta ratios compared with control group (p = 0.04) at post-training and a within-group improvement during training (p = 0.02). Additionally, the neurofeedback group had a trend of decreased omission rates of the CPT (p = 0.08) and the visual sequential memory and the visual closure subscores in the TVPS-3, compared with the control group (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively).


The results suggested that children with CP and co-occurring AD may benefit from neurofeedback training in their attention level. Further research is needed to explore long-term effects and expand its application in this population.


© 2024 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Child: Care, Health and Development