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Hybrids consisting of supercapacitive functionalized graphene (graphene oxide; GO reduced graphene oxide; rGO multilayer graphene; MLG, electrochemically reduced GO; ErGO) and three-dimensional graphene scaffold (rGO HT ; hydrothermally prepared) decorated with cobalt nanoparticles (CoNP), nanostructured cobalt (CoO and Co 3 O 4 ) and manganese (MnO 2 ) oxide polymorphs, assembled electrochemically facilitate chemically bridged interfaces with tunable properties. Since Raman spectroscopy can capture variations in structural and chemical bonding, Raman spectro-electrochemistry in operando i.e. under electrochemical environment with applied bias is employed to 1) probe graphene/metal bonding and dynamic processes, 2) monitor the spectral changes with successive redox interfacial reactions, and 3) quantify the associated parameters including type and fraction of charge transfer. The transverse optical (TO) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons above 500 cm -1 belonging to Co 3 O 4 , CoO, MnO 2 and carbon-carbon bonding occurring at 1340 cm -1 , 1590 cm -1 and 2670 cm -1 belonging to D, G, and 2D bands, respectively, are analyzed with applied potential. Consistent variation in Raman band position and intensity ratio reveal structural modification, combined charge transfer due to localized orbital re-hybridization and mechanical strain, all resulting in finely tuned electronic properties. Moreover, the heterogeneous basal and edge plane sites of graphene nanosheets in conjunction with transition metal oxide 'hybrids' reinforce efficient surface/interfacial electron transfer and available electronic density of states near Fermi level for enhanced performance. We estimated the extent and nature (n- or p-) of charge transfer complemented with Density Functional Theory calculations affected by hydration and demonstrate the synergistic coupling between graphene nanosheets and nanoscale cobalt (and manganese) oxides for applied electrochemical applications.


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AIP Advances





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