There is a growing interest on novel energetic materials called Nanoenergetic Gas- Generators (NGGs) which are potential alternatives to traditional energetic materials including pyrotechnics, propellants, primers and solid rocket fuels. NGGs are formulations that utilize metal powders as a fuel and oxides or hydroxides as oxidizers that can rapidly release large amount of heat and gaseous products to generate shock waves. The heat and pressure discharge, impact sensitivity, long term stability and other critical properties depend on the particle size and shape, as well as assembling procedure and intermixing degree between the components. The extremely high energy density and the ability to tune the dynamic properties of the energetic system makes NGGs ideal candidates to dilute or replace traditional energetic materials for emerging applications. In terms of energy density, performance and controllability of dynamic properties, the energetic materials based on bismuth and iodine compounds are exceptional among the NGGs. The thermodynamic calculations and experimental study confirm that NGGs based on iodine and bismuth compounds mixed with aluminum nanoparticles are the most powerful formulations to date and can be used potentially in microthrusters technology with high thrust-to-weight ratio with controlled combustion and exhaust velocity for space applications. The resulting nano thermites generated significant value of pressure discharge up to 14.8 kPa m3/g. They can also be integrated with carbon nanotubes to form laminar composite yarns with high power actuation of up to 4700 W/kg, or be used in other emerging applications such as biocidal agents to effectively destroy harmful bacteria in seconds, with 22 mg/m2 minimal content over infected area.
Hobosyan M.A., Martirosyan K.S. (2019) Tuning the Reactivity of Nano-energetic Gas Generators Based on Bismuth and Iodine Oxidizers. In: Bhattacharya S., Agarwal A., Rajagopalan T., Patel V. (eds) Nano-Energetic Materials. Energy, Environment, and Sustainability. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-3269-2_9
Bhattacharya S., Agarwal A., Rajagopalan T., Patel V. (eds) Nano-Energetic Materials. Energy, Environment, and Sustainability. Springer, Singapor