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We present the results from a search for gravitational-wave transients associated with core-collapse supernovae observed optically within 30 Mpc during the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. No gravitational wave associated with a core-collapse supernova has been identified. We then report the detection efficiency for a variety of possible gravitational-wave emissions. For neutrino-driven explosions, the distance at which we reach 50% detection efficiency is up to 8.9 kpc, while more energetic magnetorotationally-driven explosions are detectable at larger distances. The distance reaches for selected models of the black hole formation, and quantum chromodynamics phase transition are also provided. We then constrain the core-collapse supernova engine across a wide frequency range from 50 Hz to 2 kHz. The upper limits on gravitational-wave energy and luminosity emission are at low frequencies down to 10−4M⊙c2 and 5×10−4M⊙c2/s, respectively. The upper limits on the proto-neutron star ellipticity are down to 5 at high frequencies. Finally, by combining the results obtained with the data from the first and second observing runs of LIGO and Virgo, we improve the constraints of the parameter spaces of the extreme emission models. Specifically, the proto-neutron star ellipticities for the long-lasting bar mode model are down to 1 for long emission (1 s) at high frequency.



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