The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and the airliner crash in Pennsylvania have placed immeasurable stress upon the victims, cleanup crews and the American people. The grief and shock caused by the events will have lasting consequences. Currently organizations are in a stage of reassessing their roles played before, during and after the crisis in order to improve responses to any possible future tragedies. Additionally affected people in organizations involved in the events are trying to overcome tremendous pain and a severe sense of loss in moving beyond the attacks and its aftermath. The focus of this paper will be on the New York Fire Department and the actions of its members in response to the attacks. Also considered are the activities of the Oklahoma City Fire Department regarding their response to the bombing of the Murrah Federal building. In particular, I will be examining specific incidents concerning judgments exercised by executives and managers in the NYFD and OCFD. The two cases afford us the opportunity to examine examples of judgments and decisions made by fire fighters on those two fateful days.
Garrett, Terence. “The Art of Judgment: An Organizational Analysis of the New York City Fire Department, September 11, 2001 (A Case Study).” Public Voices, vol. 6, no. 2–3, Jan. 2003, pp. 3–10.