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Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare histiocytic disorder that can present with painless bilateral symmetrical cervical lymphadenopathy, mimicking lymphomas. RDD is characterized by excessive tissue infiltration by dendritic cells, macrophages, or monocyte-derived cells, with a histopathologic diagnosis based on the presence of CD68+, CD163+, and S100+ histiocytes, which differentiate it from other histiocytic neoplasms. In this case report, we present a young Hispanic female with recurrent subcutaneous growths and lymphadenopathy, initially thought to be lymphoma, who was diagnosed with RDD after a significant diagnostic workup. Treatment initially consisted of surgical excision; however, due to recurrence, the patient was successfully treated with corticosteroids and a steroid-sparing agent, 6-mercaptopurine, with significant improvement in symptoms. RDD should be considered a differential diagnosis for patients with cervical lymphadenopathy, and an interdisciplinary approach is essential to managing this rare disorder effectively. The report highlights the need for an interdisciplinary approach to managing this rare disorder effectively and underscores the importance of multimodal treatment in disease suppression. As a rare disease with slow advancement of defined guidelines for diagnostic and treatment strategies, this case report adds to the existing literature on RDD.


© Copyright 2023 Alexander et al.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Internal Medicine



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