Aims: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is multifactorial, caused by complex pathophysiology, and contributes to a high burden of mortality worldwide. Urinary proteomic analyses may help to identify predictive biomarkers and provide insights into the pathogenesis of CAD.
Methods and results: Urinary proteome was analysed in 965 participants using capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. A proteomic classifier was developed in a discovery cohort with 36 individuals with CAD and 36 matched controls using the support vector machine. The classifier was tested in a validation cohort with 115 individuals who progressed to CAD and 778 controls and compared with two previously developed CAD-associated classifiers, CAD238 and ACSP75. The Framingham and SCORE2 risk scores were available in 737 participants. Bioinformatic analysis was performed based on the CAD-associated peptides. The novel proteomic classifier was comprised of 160 urinary peptides, mainly related to collagen turnover, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. In the validation cohort, the classifier provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.87] for the CAD prediction in 8 years, superior to CAD238 (AUC: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.66–0.77) and ACSP75 (AUC: 0.53 and 95% CI: 0.47–0.60). On top of CAD238 and ACSP75, the addition of the novel classifier improved the AUC to 0.84 (95% CI: 0.80–0.89). In a multivariable Cox model, a 1-SD increment in the novel classifier was associated with a higher risk of CAD (HR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.26–1.89, P < 0.0001). The new classifier further improved the risk reclassification of CAD on top of the Framingham or SCORE2 risk scores (net reclassification index: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.25–0.95, P = 0.001; 0.64, 95% CI: 0.28–0.98, P = 0.001, correspondingly).
Conclusion: A novel urinary proteomic classifier related to collagen metabolism, lipids, and inflammation showed potential for the risk prediction of CAD. Urinary proteome provides an alternative approach to personalized prevention.
Dongmei Wei, Jesus D Melgarejo, Lucas Van Aelst, Thomas Vanassche, Peter Verhamme, Stefan Janssens, Karlheinz Peter, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Prediction of coronary artery disease using urinary proteomics, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Volume 30, Issue 14, October 2023, Pages 1537–1546, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwad087
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European Journal of Preventive Cardiology