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This Special Issue of Human Brain Mapping is dedicated to a 10-year anniversary of the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium. It reports updates from a broad range of international neuroimaging projects that pool data from around the world to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience. Since ENIGMA was formed in December 2009, the initiative grew into a worldwide effort with over 2,000 participating scientists from 45 countries, and over 50 working groups leading large-scale studies of human brain disorders. Over the last decade, many lessons were learned on how best to pool brain data from diverse sources. Working groups were created to develop methods to analyze worldwide data from anatomical and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resting state and task-based functional MRI, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The quest to understand genetic effects on human brain development and disease also led to analyses of brain scans on an unprecedented scale. Genetic roadmaps of the human cortex were created by researchers worldwide who collaborated to perform statistically well-powered analyses of common and rare genetic variants on brain measures and rates of brain development and aging. Here, we summarize the 31 papers in this Special Issue, covering: (a) technical approaches to harmonize analysis of different types of brain imaging data, (b) reviews of the last decade of work by several of ENIGMA's clinical and technical working groups, and (c) new empirical papers reporting large-scale international brain mapping analyses in patients with substance use disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and stroke.


© 2021 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Publication Title

Human Brain Mapping



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Mentor/PI Department

Office of Human Genetics



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