Neuroimaging studies typically focus on either resting state or task-based fMRI data. Prior research has shown that similarity in functional connectivity between rest and cognitive tasks, interpreted as reconfiguration efficiency, is related to task performance and IQ. Here, we extend this approach from adults to children, and from cognitive tasks to a threat-based attention task. The goal of the current study was to examine whether similarity in functional connectivity during rest and an attention bias task relates to threat bias, IQ, anxiety symptoms, and social reticence. fMRI was measured during resting state and during the dot-probe task in 41 children (M = 13.44, SD = 0.70). Functional connectivity during rest and dot-probe was positively correlated, suggesting that functional hierarchies in the brain are stable. Similarity in functional connectivity between rest and the dot-probe task only related to threat bias (p < .03). This effect did not survive correction for multiple testing. Overall, children who allocate more attention towards threat also may possess greater reconfiguration efficiency in switching from intrinsic to threat-related attention states. Finally, functional connectivity correlated negatively across the two conditions of the dot-probe task. Opposing patterns of modulation of functional connectivity by threat-congruent and threat-incongruent trials may reflect task-specific network changes during two different attentional processes.
Harrewijn, A., Abend, R., Linke, J., Brotman, M. A., Fox, N. A., Leibenluft, E., ... & Pine, D. S. (2020). Combining fMRI during resting state and an attention bias task in children. NeuroImage, 205, 116301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116301
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