School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Chronic Pulse Wave Velocity And Hemodynamic Responses To Various Training Modes

Document Type


Publication Date



PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the effects of various resistance training (RT) protocols with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on pulse wave velocity (PWV) and hemodynamics.

METHODS: Thirty-two male subjects (age = 20.5 ± 2.8 yr.) were randomly assigned to one of three training groups (high intensity (HI), n = 10; HI + aerobic exercise (HI + AE), n = 11; & BFR, n = 11) that performed whole-body RT 2x/wk for 8 weeks. The HI group performed 3 sets of 8-11 reps at 70-80% of their one repetition maximum (1RM) with a 2 min rest between sets and exercises. The HI + AE group performed the exact same RT protocol as the HI group followed by a 15-min walk/jog at 60% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). The BFR group performed 4 sets of 20 reps at 20-40% of their 1RM with 30-60 seconds rest between sets and 2 min rest between exercises, which was followed by a 15-min walk at 40% of their VO2peak. Under fasted and hydrated conditions, subjects’ pre- and post-training PWV and hemodynamic values were assessed via SphygmoCor-Xcel and HDI/PulseWave CR-2000.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. Significant time main effects were seen in PWV, aortic mean arterial pressure (MAP), ejection duration, end systolic pressure, HDI diastolic blood pressure (DBP), HDI pulse pressure, and HDI stroke volume (SV) (p < 0.05). In addition, significant time*condition interactions were seen in PWV, heart rate (HR) period, HDI systolic BP (SBP), HDI MAP, and HDI SV (p < 0.05). A significantly greater % decrease was observed in PWV and HDI HR for HI + AE compared to HI (p = 0.02; p < 0.05, respectively) and BFR (p = 0.04; p < 0.03, respectively). There were significantly greater % increases in SV for HI + AE compared to HI (p < 0.04) and BFR (p < 0.03) and % decreases in aortic HR for HI + AE compared to BFR (p < 0.02). The HI group had a significantly greater % increase in HDI SBP compared to the BFR (p < 0.05) and HI + AE (p < 0.01) groups, along with greater significant % increases in HDI DBP and HDI MAP compared to HI + AE (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in PWV and several other hemodynamic variables following HI + AE indicate that the adverse effect of high intensity RT on arterial health can be negated with AE following RT training. In addition, superior adaptations following HI + AE indicates that intensity of AE may be an important factor.


Copyright © 2023 by the American College of Sports Medicine

Publication Title

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise



Academic Level


Mentor/PI Department

Office of Human Genetics