The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been an immense threat to global public health and has also had a negative socioeconomic impact worldwide. However, although the pandemic is now under control, it has demonstrated that society is unprepared to use analysis methods that are applicable to various types of viruses nor apply new therapies to prevent infections, considering the extensive time needed for vaccine development. The use of nanomaterial-based diagnostics and therapeutics can provide essential strategies for both virus detection and treatment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are the nanomaterials most commonly used to enhance virus detection because of their bioconjugation, high plasmon resonance, and excellent electrical, optical, and catalytic properties. The present review outlines the recent advances reported in the literature regarding using AuNPs for their antiviral activities with respiratory viruses, analysis techniques such as AuNP-assisted polymerase chain reaction, biosensors (electrochemical, piezoelectric, and optical), lateral flow analysis, nucleic acid assays, and gene and vaccine therapy. Finally, as a potential antiviral treatment, this review provides in vitro and in vivo toxicity results of AuNPs for respiratory viruses, as well as those related to their toxicity in humans, to evaluate their use as a future antiviral treatment.
Rasmi, Y., Kırboğa, K., Khan, J., Gupta, E., Mostafa, F., Yallapu, M. & Pilaquinga, F. (2023). Gold nanoparticle-based strategies against SARS-CoV-2: A review. REVIEWS ON ADVANCED MATERIALS SCIENCE, 62(1), 20230105. https://doi.org/10.1515/rams-2023-0105
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REVIEWS ON ADVANCED MATERIALS SCIENCE
Immunology and Microbiology