School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

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  • A svCRiSP from Mojave rattlesnake triggered the release of key pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cell lines.

  • Early release of pro-inflammatory mediators was observed locally and systemically in mice treated with Css-CRiSP.

  • This study provides further evidence of the pro-inflammatory effects of crotalid CRiSP.

  • Css-CRiSP may modulate the vascular dysfunction and persistent inflammation seen in envenomings by Mojave rattlesnakes.


Snake venoms contain various molecules known for activating innate immunity and causing local effects associated with increased vascular permeability, such as vascular leakage and edema, common symptoms seen in snakebite envenomings. We have demonstrated that snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins (svCRiSPs) from North American pit vipers increase vascular permeability. This study aimed to explore the functional role of CRiSP isolated from Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) venom (Css-CRiSP) on the activation of inflammatory responses in different models. We measured the release of inflammatory mediators in cultured human dermal blood endothelial cells (HDBEC), lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLEC) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after treatment with Css-CRiSP (1 μM). We also determined the acute inflammatory response in BALB/c mice 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of the toxin (2 μg/mouse). Css-CRiSP induced the production of IL-8 and IL-6, but not TNF-α, in HDBEC and HDLEC in a time-dependent manner. In addition, Css-CRiSP significantly enhanced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-1β in MDM. Moreover, it caused a remarkable increase of chemotactic mediators in the exudates of experimental mice. Our results reveal that Css-CRiSPs can promote a sustained release of inflammatory mediators on cell lines and an acute activation of innate immunity in a murine model. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence supporting the involvement of svCRiSPs in the augmentation of envenomation effects, specifically, the role of svCRiSPs in inducing vascular dysfunction, initiating early inflammatory responses, and facilitating the activation of leukocytes and releasing mediators. These findings will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of envenoming by Mojave rattlesnakes, allowing the development of more efficient therapeutic strategies.


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Office of Human Genetics



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