School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

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The post-pandemic era following the global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought about persistent concerns regarding recurring coinfections. While significant strides in genome mapping, diagnostics, and vaccine development have controlled the pandemic and reduced fatalities, ongoing virus mutations necessitate a deeper exploration of the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 mutations and the host's immune response. Various vaccines, including RNA-based ones like Pfizer and Moderna, viral vector vaccines like Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca, and protein subunit vaccines like Novavax, have played critical roles in mitigating the impact of COVID-19. Understanding their strengths and limitations is crucial for tailoring future vaccines to specific variants and individual needs. The intricate relationship between SARS-CoV-2 mutations and the immune response remains a focus of intense research, providing insights into personalized treatment strategies and long-term effects like long-COVID.

This article offers an overview of the post-pandemic landscape, highlighting emerging variants, summarizing vaccine platforms, and delving into immunological responses and the phenomenon of long-COVID. By presenting clinical findings, it aims to contribute to the ongoing understanding of COVID-19's progression in the aftermath of the pandemic.


This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Immunology and Microbiology



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