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Inpatient hyperglycaemia is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, number of rehospitalisations and length of hospitalisation. Although the advantages of proper glycaemic control in hospitalised patients with diabetes are well established, a variety of barriers limit accomplishment of blood glucose targets. Our primary aim was to decrease the number of glucose values above 180 mg/dL in non-critical care hospitalised patients using an audit and feedback intervention with pharmacy and internal medicine residents. A resident-led multidisciplinary team implemented the quality improvement (QI) project including conception, literature review, educating residents, iterative development of audit and feedback tools and data analysis. The multidisciplinary team met every 5 weeks and undertook three ‘plan–do–study–act’ cycles over an 8-month intervention period (August 2022 to March 2023) to educate residents on inpatient hyperglycaemia management, develop and implement an audit and feedback process and assess areas for improvement. We performed 1045 audits analysing 16 095 accu-checks on 395 non-duplicated patients. Most audits showed compliance with guidelines. The monthly run-on chart shows per cent of glucose values above 180 mg/dL in our non-ICU hospitalised patients and an overall pre-to-post comparison of 25.1%–23.0% (p value<0.05). The intervention was well accepted by residents evidenced by survey results. We did not meet our primary aim to reduce hyperglycaemia by 30% and this combined with the audits showing mostly compliance with guidelines suggests that prescribing behaviour was not a key driver of inpatient hyperglycaemia in our population. This internal medicine resident and pharmacy interprofessional collaboration with audit and feedback for inpatient hyperglycaemia was feasible, well accepted and had a statistically significant yet small improvement in inpatient hyperglycaemia. The project may be helpful to others wishing to explore inpatient hyperglycaemia, interprofessional QI with pharmacists, resident-led QI and audit and feedback.


Copyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2024. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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BMJ Open Quality



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Mentor/PI Department

Internal Medicine



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