School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

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Background: Vascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), are associated with poorer outcomes following many neurodegenerative diseases, including hemorrhagic stroke and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Combined AD and DM co-morbidities are associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke and increased Medicare costs. Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with DM in combination with AD, termed DM/AD, would have increased hemorrhagic stroke severity.

Methods: Kentucky Appalachian Stroke Registry (KApSR) is a database of demographic and clinical data from patients that live in Appalachia, a distinct region with increased health disparities and stroke severity. Inpatients with a primary indication of hemorrhagic stroke were selected from KApSR for retrospective analysis and were separated into four groups: DM only, AD only, neither, or both.

Results: Hemorrhagic stroke patients (2,071 total) presented with either intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), n=1,448, or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), n=623. When examining all four groups, subjects with AD were significantly older (AD+, 80.9±6.6 yrs) (DM+/AD+, 77.4±10.0 yrs) than non AD subjects (DM-/AD-, 61.3±16.5 yrs) and (DM+, 66.0±12.5 yrs). A higher percentage of females were among the AD+ group and a higher percentage of males among the DM+/AD+ group. Interestingly, after adjusting for multiple comparison, DM+/AD+ subjects were ten times as likely to suffer a moderate to severe stroke based on a National Institute of Health Stroke (NIHSS) upon admission [odds ratio (95% CI)] compared to DM-/AD- [0.1 (0.02–0.55)], DM+ [0.11 (0.02–0.59)], and AD+ [0.09(0.01–0.63)]. The odds of DM+/AD+ subjects having an unfavorable discharge destination (death, hospice, long-term care) was significant (P

Conclusions: In our retrospective analysis utilizing KApSR, regardless of adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, DM+/AD+ patients were significantly more likely to have had a moderate or severe stroke leading to an unfavorable outcome following hemorrhagic stroke.


© Annals of Translational Medicine. All rights reserved.

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Annals of Translational Medicine



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Mentor/PI Department




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