School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Document Type


Publication Date



Frailty is the age-related decline in well-being. The Frailty index (FI) measures the accumulation of health deficits and reflects biopsychosocial and cultural determinants of well-being. Frailty is measured as a static phenotype or as a Frailty Index comprising a ratio of suffered health deficits and total deficits. We report a Frailty Index calculated from routinely measured clinical variables gathered from residents of two Colonias (neighborhoods) in South Texas. A Colonia is a predominantly Hispanic, economically distressed, unincorporated neighborhood. We analyzed retrospective data from 894 patients that live in two Colonias located on the Texas-Mexico border. We calculated the FI with seven physiological variables, PHQ-9 score, and the 11 domain-specific Duke Profile scores, for a total of 19 possible health deficits. FI against age separately in males (n = 272) and females (n = 622) was regressed. Females had a significantly higher starting frailty, and males had a significantly greater change rate with age. FI against age for Cameron Park Colonia and Indian Hills Colonia was regressed. We calculated a significantly higher starting FI in Indian Hills and a significantly greater change rate in Cameron Park residents. Frailty's contributors are complex, especially in neighborhoods of poverty, immigration, low education level, and high prevalence of chronic disease. We report baseline Frailty Index data from two Colonias in South Texas and the clinical and research implications.


© 2021 Manusov, Gomez De Ziegler, Diego, Munoz-Monaco and Williams-Blangero.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publication Title

Frontiers in Medicine



Academic Level


Mentor/PI Department

Office of Human Genetics



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.