The prognostic implications of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), as defined by 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines, have not been tested using ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitor thresholds (ie, 24-hour mean systolic BP <125 mm Hg and diastolic BP ≥75 mm Hg). We analyzed data from 11 135 participants in the IDACO (International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes). Using 24-hour mean ambulatory BP monitor values, we performed Cox regression testing independent associations of IDH with death or cardiovascular events. Analyses were conducted in the cohort overall, as well as after age stratification (<50 years versus ≥50 years). The median age at baseline was 54.7 years and 49% were female. Over a median follow-up of 13.8 years, 2836 participants died, and 2049 experienced a cardiovascular event. Overall, irrespective of age, IDH on 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor defined by 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association criteria was not significantly associated with death (hazard ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.79–1.13]) or cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.94–1.40]), compared with normotension. However, among the subgroup <50 years old, IDH was associated with excess risk for cardiovascular events (2.87 [95% CI, 1.72–4.80]), with evidence for effect modification based on age (P interaction <0.001). In conclusion, using ambulatory BP monitor data, this study suggests that IDH defined by 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association criteria is not a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults aged 50 years or older but is a risk factor among younger adults. Thus, age is an important consideration in the clinical management of adults with IDH.
McEvoy JW, Yang WY, Thijs L, et al. Isolated Diastolic Hypertension in the IDACO Study: An Age-Stratified Analysis Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements. Hypertension. 2021;78(5):1222-1231. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17766
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