Importance: There is clinical equipoise for COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of CCP compared with placebo in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving noninvasive supplemental oxygen.
Design, setting, and participants: CONTAIN COVID-19, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CCP in hospitalized adults with COVID-19, was conducted at 21 US hospitals from April 17, 2020, to March 15, 2021. The trial enrolled 941 participants who were hospitalized for 3 or less days or presented 7 or less days after symptom onset and required noninvasive oxygen supplementation.
Interventions: A unit of approximately 250 mL of CCP or equivalent volume of placebo (normal saline).
Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was participant scores on the 11-point World Health Organization (WHO) Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement on day 14 after randomization; the secondary outcome was WHO scores determined on day 28. Subgroups were analyzed with respect to age, baseline WHO score, concomitant medications, symptom duration, CCP SARS-CoV-2 titer, baseline SARS-CoV-2 serostatus, and enrollment quarter. Outcomes were analyzed using a bayesian proportional cumulative odds model. Efficacy of CCP was defined as a cumulative adjusted odds ratio (cOR) less than 1 and a clinically meaningful effect as cOR less than 0.8.
Results: Of 941 participants randomized (473 to placebo and 468 to CCP), 556 were men (59.1%); median age was 63 years (IQR, 52-73); 373 (39.6%) were Hispanic and 132 (14.0%) were non-Hispanic Black. The cOR for the primary outcome adjusted for site, baseline risk, WHO score, age, sex, and symptom duration was 0.94 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.75-1.18) with posterior probability (P[cOR
Conclusions and relevance: In this trial, CCP did not meet the prespecified primary and secondary outcomes for CCP efficacy. However, high-titer CCP may have benefited participants early in the pandemic when remdesivir and corticosteroids were not in use.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04364737.
Ortigoza, M. B., Yoon, H., Goldfeld, K. S., Troxel, A. B., Daily, J. P., Wu, Y., Li, Y., Wu, D., Cobb, G. F., Baptiste, G., O'Keeffe, M., Corpuz, M. O., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Amin, A., Zacharioudakis, I. M., Jayaweera, D. T., Wu, Y., Philley, J. V., Devine, M. S., Desruisseaux, M. S., … Hendrickson, J. E. (2021). Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma in Hospitalized Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA internal medicine, 10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.6850. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.6850
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