Mean arterial pressure (MAP) drives ocular perfusion. Excessive 24-h MAP variability relates to glaucoma, however, whether this is due to dips or increases in the blood pressure (BP) is undocumented. We investigated the association of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in relation to the five largest MAP dips/increases over 24-h, henceforth called dips/blips.
In the Maracaibo Aging Study (MAS), 93 participants aged ≥40y (women, 87.1%; mean age, 61.9y) underwent baseline ophthalmological and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring assessments. OAG was the presence of optic nerve damage and visual field defects. Statistical methods included logistic regression and the generalized R2 statistic. For replication, 48 OAG cases at the Leuven Glaucoma Clinic were matched with 48 controls recruited from Flemish population.
In MAS, 26 had OAG. OAG compared to non-OAG participants experienced longer and deeper dips (116.5 vs. 102.7 minutes; to 60.3 vs. 66.6 mmHg; 21.0 vs. 18.0 mmHg absolute or 0.79 vs. 0.81 relative dip compared to the preceding reading). The adjusted odds ratios associated with dip measures ranged from 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.85; P=0.009) to 3.39 (95% CI, 1.368.46; P=0.008). On top of covariables and 24MAP level/variability, the dip measures increased the model performance (P≤0.025). Blips did not associate with OAG. The casecontrol study replicated the MAS observations.
Dips rather than increases in the 24-h MAP level were associated with increased risk for OAG. An ophthalmological examination combined with 24h BP monitoring might be precautious steps required in normotensive and hypertensive patients at risk of OAG.
Jesus D Melgarejo, Jan V Eijgen, Gladys E Maestre, Lama A Al-Aswad, Lutgarde Thijs, Luis J Mena, Joseph H Lee, Joseph D Terwilliger, Michele Petitto, Carlos A Chávez, Miguel Brito, Gustavo Calmon, Egle Silva, Dong-Mei Wei, Ella Cutsforth, Karel V Keer, C Gustavo De Moraes, Thomas Vanassche, Stefan Janssens, Ingeborg Stalmans, Peter Verhamme, Jan A Staessen, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Open-Angle Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy is Related to Dips Rather than Increases in the Mean Arterial Pressure Over 24-H, American Journal of Hypertension, 2022;, hpac028, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpac028
American Journal of Hypertension
Available for download on Sunday, February 26, 2023