Quantitative HLA-class-II/factor VIII (FVIII) peptidomic variation in dendritic cells correlates with the immunogenic potential of therapeutic FVIII proteins in hemophilia A
Plasma-derived (pd) or recombinant (r) therapeutic factor VIII proteins (FVIIIs) are infused to arrest/prevent bleeding in patients with hemophilia A (PWHA). However, FVIIIs are neutralized if anti-FVIII-antibodies (inhibitors) develop. Accumulating evidence suggests that pdFVIIIs with von Willebrand factor (VWF) are less immunogenic than rFVIIIs and that distinct rFVIIIs are differentially immunogenic. Since inhibitor development is T-helper-cell-dependent, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class-II (HLAcII) molecules constitute an important early determinant.
Use dendritic cell (DC)-protein processing/presentation assays with mass-spectrometric and peptide-proteomic analyses to quantify the DP-bound, DQ-bound, and DR-bound FVIII-derived peptides in individual HLAcII repertoires and compare the immunogenic potential of six distinct FVIIIs based on their measured peptide counts.
Monocyte-derived DCs from normal donors and/or PWHA were cultured with either: Mix-rFVIII, a VWF-free equimolar mixture of a full-length (FL)-rFVIII [Advate® (Takeda)] and four distinct B-domain-deleted (BDD)-rFVIIIs [Xyntha® (Pfizer), NovoEight® (Novo-Nordisk), Nuwiq® (Octapharma), and Afstyla® (CSL Behring GmBH)]; a pdFVIII + pdVWF [Beriate® (CSL Behring GmBH)]; Advate ± pdVWF; Afstyla ± pdVWF; and Xyntha + pdVWF.
We showed that (i) Beriate had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than Advate ± pdVWF, Afstyla − pdVWF, and Mix-rFVIII; (ii) distinct FVIIIs differed significantly in their immunogenic potential in that, in addition to (i), Afstyla + pdVWF had a significantly lower immunogenic potential than Beriate, while the immunogenic potential of Beriate was not significantly different from that of Xyntha + pdVWF; and (iii) rFVIIIs with pdVWF had significantly lower immunogenic potentials than the same rFVIIIs without pdVWF.
Our results provide HLAcII peptidomic level explanations for several important clinical observations/issues including the differential immunogenicity of distinct FVIIIs and the role of HLAcII genetics in inhibitor development.
Diego, VP, Luu, BW, Hofmann, M, et al. Quantitative HLA-class-II/factor VIII (FVIII) peptidomic variation in dendritic cells correlates with the immunogenic potential of therapeutic FVIII proteins in hemophilia A. J Thromb Haemost. 2020; 18: 201– 216. https://doi.org/10.1111/jth.14647.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Office of Human Genetics