School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Document Type


Publication Date



Introduction—The baboon is a well-characterized model of human early stage atherosclerosis. However, histological and morphological changes involved in atherogenesis in baboons are not known. Previously we challenged baboons with a high-cholesterol, high-fat diet for two years and observed fatty streak and plaque lesions in iliac arteries (RCIA). Methods—We evaluated histological and morphological changes of baboon arterial lesions and control arteries. In addition, we evaluated the vascular expression of CD68 and SMαA markers with progression of atherosclerosis. Results—We observed changes that correlated with extent of atherosclerosis, including increased maximum intimal thickness. We demonstrated at molecular level the infiltration of smooth muscle cells and macrophages into the intimal layer. Further, we observed histological and morphological discordancy between the affected and adjacent areas of the same RCIA. Conclusion—Atherogenesis in baboons is accompanied by histological, morphological and molecular changes, as in humans, providing insights to evaluate the mechanisms underlying early stage atherosclerosis in target tissues.


"This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:

Karere, GM, Dick, EJ, Galindo, S, et al. Histological variation of early stage atherosclerotic lesions in baboons after prolonged challenge with high-cholesterol, high-fat diet. J Med Primatol. 2020; 49: 3– 9.

which has been published in final form at article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.

Publication Title

J Med Primatol



Academic Level


Mentor/PI Department

Office of Human Genetics



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.